The Female Athlete Triad

presented by Barbara Hoogenboom

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What gender differences exist between female and male athletes? Why are gender-specific considerations important for the physical therapist that examines, evaluates and treats female athletes? This course presents current information regarding the Female Athlete Triad, and how the physical therapist fits into the multidisciplinary identification, management, and wellness of female athletes with one or more component of the Triad. It also presents information specific to the exercise needs of the pregnant athlete. Give the best care to your female athletes by being attentive to special considerations that may present.

Meet Your Instructor

  • Barbara Hoogenboom, EdD, PT, SCS, ATC

    Barbara Hoogenboom, EdD, PT, SCS, ATC

    Barbara Hoogenboom, EdD, PT, SCS, ATC was the first Board Certified Sports Clinical Specialist in West Michigan, and has been a Certified Athletic Trainer since 1988. She is a professor at the Grand Valley State University Physical Therapy program, and has a certification in physical therapy from Cleveland State University, a Masters Degree in Health Science from Grand Valley State University, and a Doctorate in Educational Leadership from Eastern Michigan University. Barbara has been certified three times by the ABPTS as a Sports Certified Specialist. In addition, she is a member of the American Physical Therapy Association and a member of the Sports Section. She formerly served as Sports Section program chair for educational programming for The Combined Section Meeting of the APTA, and is a member of the American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine. Barbara has authored many articles on the female athlete, nutrition, and sports physical therapy topics, and has contributed to 8 textbooks. She is the editor of the therapeutic exercise textbook entitled "Therapeutic Exercise: Techniques for Intervention." She is also the Senior Associate Editor for the International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy.

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Chapters & Learning Objectives

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  1. Female Participation

    1. Female Participation

    Who is the female athlete and why is she important? This chapter outlines the history of female participation in sports, both at the high school and collegiate levels. Dr. Hoogenboom emphasizes the importance of thorough examination of anatomical, physiological, and medical systems within the female athlete, and highlights the advantages of a strong physical therapist-athlete relationship.

  2. The Female Triad

    2. The Female Triad

    This chapter identifies the components of the Female Athlete Triad, and describes the spectrum of interdependent relationships between these components. Participants will engage in the identification, prevention, and appropriate management of the female athlete triad as a member of a multi-disciplinary team. Emphasis is placed on the development of an informational network and referral sources for the appropriate management of aspects within the female athlete triad that are beyond the expertise of the physical therapist.

  3. Menstrual Irregularities and BMD

    3. Menstrual Irregularities and BMD

    Irregularities in menstruation, while common, can be a sign of a more serious problem. It is essential to understand the underlying causes of each irregularity in order for effective intervention strategies to be implemented. In this chapter, Dr. Hoogenboom classifies the different types of menstrual irregularities, choosing to focus on amenorrhea in relation to the female athlete. Emphasis is placed on identifying symptoms, causes, and providing advice regarding appropriate treatment and medical consultations.

  4. Multidisciplinary and Physical Therapist Implications of the Triad

    4. Multidisciplinary and Physical Therapist Implications of the Triad

    Abnormal menstruation can lead to many changes and imbalances regarding thermal regulation, electrolyte imbalance, and healing rates. Dr. Hoogenboom addresses the importance of accurate evaluation of the female body in regards to the Triad. Participants will learn how to prevent and recognize the symptoms and risks of the Triad, as well as strategies to target proper nutrition and and safe training principles among female athletes.

  5. The Pregnant Athlete

    5. The Pregnant Athlete

    Join Dr. Hoogenboom as she describes the physiologic considerations related to exercise in the pregnant, physically active female, while addressing the development of safe and effective exercise prescriptions for the pregnant athlete.

  6. Pregnancy and Exercise

    6. Pregnancy and Exercise

    How safe is exercise for pregnant women? This chapter seeks to debunk the myths that suggest exercise has negative consequences on pregnancy. Hoogenboom educates participants on the benefits of continuing exercise among pregnant women, and proposes safe guidelines for walking, running, exercise intensity, and volume.