2. Abnormal Foot Characteristics and Overuse Injuries
Explain the importance of pronation, how it is measured and in which direction. Identify the seven distinct tests of the foot and ankle that can assist the clinician in determining abnormal findings. Explain how to assess a rigid plantar flexed first metatarsal. Identify three overuse injuries of the lower leg caused by pronation of the subtalar joint occurring too long into the gait cycle.