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Pathophysiology & Management of Type 1 Diabetes

presented by Julie Brandy, PhD, RN, FNP-BC, CNE

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Financial: Julie Brandy receives compensation from MedBridge for this course. There is no financial interest beyond the production of this course.

Non-Financial: Julie Brandy has no competing non-financial interests or relationships with regard to the content presented in this course.

Satisfactory completion requirements: All disciplines must complete learning assessments to be awarded credit, no minimum score required unless otherwise specified within the course.

MedBridge is committed to accessibility for all of our subscribers. If you are in need of a disability-related accommodation, please contact [email protected]. We will process requests for reasonable accommodation and will provide reasonable accommodations where appropriate, in a prompt and efficient manner.

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic multi-system disease, most often diagnosed in individuals under the age of 40. Early identification of the disease, along with appropriate glycemic control, can help to prevent significant long-term complications. This course will provide students with a comprehensive overview of type 1 diabetes, including the pathophysiology and management of the disease. Topics to be covered will include: etiology and pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes; clinical manifestations of the disease; diagnosis; pharmacological and nonpharmacological management strategies; and complications of the disease. Important topics for patient teaching will be included throughout. Information presented in this course will be useful when working with individuals with type 1 diabetes in all treatment settings. The target audience for this course includes nurses (LPNs & RNs), Advanced Practice Nurses (APRNs), and Physician Assistants (PAs). Course content could also be beneficial for athletic trainers, physical therapists, occupational therapists, and speech and language pathologists.

Meet Your Instructor

Julie Brandy, PhD, RN, FNP-BC, CNE

Dr. Brandy is an Associate Professor of Nursing at Valparaiso University. She holds a PhD in Nursing Science from Loyola University, Chicago, a master's degree as a clinical nurse specialist in psychiatric/mental health nursing, and a post-graduate Certificate as a family nurse practitioner from Valparaiso University. Dr. Brandy is certified as a family nurse practitioner…

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1. Etiology and Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that impacts the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin. Patients with type 1 diabetes experience elevated serum glucose levels due to their lack of insulin production. It is believed this disease may be caused by a genetic mutation, or following exposure to a virus which damages the beta cells of the pancreas.

2. Signs and Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes

Patients with type 1 diabetes often present with a rapid onset of symptoms, which may be life-threatening. The symptoms occur due to elevated plasma glucose, indicating their bodies are experiencing insufficient insulin production. Polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, as well as unexplained weight loss, are common symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

3. Diagnostic Testing for Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes

Individuals are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes following abnormal results on one of four diagnostic tests. These tests include an elevated A1c, an elevated fasting plasma glucose, an abnormal glucose tolerance test, or an elevated random plasma glucose level. Evaluation and interpretation of results from each of these testing options will be discussed.

4. Treatment Interventions for Type 1 Diabetes

The most common treatment intervention for individuals with type 1 diabetes is pharmacologic intervention, represented by various methods of administration of exogenous insulin. There are many types of insulin available, with most patients receiving regimens which include more than one type of insulin. Nonpharmacologic interventions, such as lifestyle changes, are also important treatment interventions for individuals with type 1 diabetes. Individuals with type 1 diabetes must complete routine monitoring of plasma glucose levels to evaluate the effectiveness of these treatment interventions.

5. Complications of Type 1 Diabetes

Complications of type 1 diabetes can be either emergent or chronic. Health care professionals must be able to recognize emergent complications, which can be life-threatening. Emergent complications are most often due to either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Chronic complications of type 1 diabetes are the result of long-standing hyperglycemia. The occurrence of chronic complications can be decreased by maintaining normal plasma glucose levels.

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