2. Mid and Lower Lumbar Spine
Review the biomechanics and coupled motion model related to the mid and lower lumbar spine. Identify the complications associated with manipulation thrust techniques of the mid and lower lumbar spine. Understand the principles underpinning both neutral/extension and flexion positioning and facet apposition locking for the mid and lower lumbar spine, including the necessary modifications for the stiffer spine. Analyze the method of applying safe and effective sidelying manipulation thrust techniques in the mid and lower lumbar spine. Review the research evidence relating to the use of lumbar spine manipulation thrust techniques.