1. Respiratory Failure Type I and II
Respiratory failure can be classified into two categories. Type I, hypoxemic respiratory failure, is characterized by arterial oxygen tension (Pa02) less than 60 mmHg, with a normal to low carbon dioxide (PaC02) value. This type of failure is the most common and is often seen in patients with cardiogenic or noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, pulmonary hemorrhage, or pneumonia. Type II, defined as a PaC02 greater than 50 mm Hg and a Pa02 less than 60 mmHg, characterizes hypercapnic respiratory failure. This type of respiratory failure is more common in patients with COPD, neuromuscular disease, and drug overdose. Delivery devices and patient monitoring will be discussed.