1. Predictors and Indicators of Esophageal Dysphagia: Differential Diagnosis
The interrelationships between the oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal disorders must be considered during the evaluation process. Differential diagnoses of oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia rely on thorough patient history, patient complaints, signs and symptoms, and findings from the instrumental evaluation. However, the patient’s clinical complaints and reports regarding the site of dysphagia may be unreliable and do not necessarily correlate with the actual problem. This chapter covers predictors and indications for esophageal dysphagia.